Abl.离格 from/with/by/in
adv. abl. accompaniment Cum Petro venit.

He came with Peter.

abl. Separation Libera nos a malo.

Deliver us from evil.

abl. means Gladio occisus est.

He was killed with a sword.

abl. manner Magno cum dolore locutus est.

He spoke with great sorrow.

(gen) abl. description Petrus erat magna vir fide.

Peter was a man of great faith.

(dat) abl. personal agency Missa ab episcopo celebrabitur.

Mass will be celebrated by the bishop.

abl. Respect Beati pauperes spiritus.

Blessed are the poor in spirit.

abl. cause (from过去)*

* dat. purpose (to将来)

Prae gaudio clamaverunt.

They shouted for joy.

abl. absolute Cena praeparata, pueri in domum intraverunt.

With dinner prepared, the boy entered the house.

(acc) abl. place In domo Petri manebant.

They were staying in Peter’s house.

E domo venerunt.

From house, they came.

(acc) abl. time Quinque annis hoc struxerunt.

They built this in five years.

(gen.) abl. comparison Quis est major illo?

Who is greater than that man?

(gen.) abl. difference Petrus erat multo senior quam Joannes?

Peter was much older than John?

cognate abl. (acc) means: media/thing 34

manner: method/mood 35

Magno timore timerunt.

They feared with a great fear.

with adj. Ave, Maria, gratia plena.

Hail, Mary, full of grace.

with verb. Sacerdo ritu fungitur.

The priest is performing the ceremony.

  Genitive   Dative 間賓  for/to   Acc. 直賓  
basic usages Possessor libri puerorum
books of children
indirect Obj Petrus mihi hoc dedit.
Peter gave me this.
Direct Obj. Petrum vidit Paulus.
Paul saw Peter.
  Description homines bonae voluntatis
person of good will
Deo peccavit.
He sinned against God.




satis cibi
enough (of) food
Possessor tibi nomen
your name
cognate Acc. vitas nostras vivimus.
We live our own lives.




vir est sanae mentis
the man is of sound mind
actor of passive periphrastics
Hymnus nobis cantandus est.
A hymn ought to be sung by us.
predicate Acc. Fecerunt cum papam.
They made him pope.
Double Double Genitive (Sub / Obj)




dei dilectio hominum
God’s love towards human beings
for sth. to sb.
double dat.
Eritis odio eis.
You will be for hatred to them. They will hate you.
double Acc. 1. Nos prationem docuit.
He taught us the prayer.
Adj. certain adj. memor petri
mindful of Peter
potens daemoniorum
power over demons
certain adj. Filius Patri similis est.
The Son is like the Father.
Verb. certain verb. misereor tui
I pity you
certain verb.
  1. Intransitive verbs: Credunt Evanglio. They believe in the Gospel.
  2. Impersonal verbs: Non licet tibi abire. It is not permitted for you to leave.
  3. Compounds: Quid mihi prodest? What does it profit me?
Misc. Uses with causa Petri causa
for the sake of Peter
mea causa
for my sake
    adv. space & time In domum intravit.
He entered the house.
Romam iit.
He went to Rome.
Quinque dies mansit.
He stayed for five days.
  Hebraic idiom in saecula saeculorum
forever and ever
    Adv. Acc Quid ploas?
Why are you crying?
  after comparatives and superlative Petrus erat falicissimus omnium apostolorum.
Peter was the happiest of all apostles.
    indirect statement 1 Acc. (subj.) + Inf.
Putaverunt Paulum esse deum.
They thought Paul was a god.
2 Acc. + quod clause
Dicimus Petrum quod hic est bonus.
We say Peter that he is good.
We say that Peter is good.